Covariance is the simplest and widely used measure of correlation. We can find the covariance between two variables in R using the cov function. Covariance measures the linear relationship between two variables in a dataset. A positive covariance value indicates a positive linear relationship between the variables, and a negative

# Data analysis

# Different types of Data Analysis

Analysis involves estimating the values of unknown parameters of the population and testing hypothesis for drawing inferences. Types of Analysis a. Qualitative analysis b. Content analysis c. Quantitative analysis d. Descriptive analysis e. Bivariate analysis f. Sequential analysis g. Casual analysis h. Multivariate analysis i. Inferential analysis j. Statistical analysis Qualitative Analysis It is less influenced by theoretical assumption. The limitation of this

# Important properties of the Normal distribution

The normal distribution was first described by Abraham Demoivre (1667-1754) as the limiting form of binomial model in 1733. Normal distribution was rediscovered by Gauss in 1809 and by Laplace in 1812. Both Gauss and Laplace were led to the distribution by their work on the theory of errors of

# Multivariate normality Tests with R – Mardia's Test, Henze-Zirkler, Royston

Most multivariate techniques, such as Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA), Factor Analysis, MANOVA and Multivariate Regression are based on an assumption of multivariate normality. So, In this post, I am going to show you how you can assess the multivariate normality for the variables in your sample. The above test multivariate

# Measurement Scales – Nominal, Ordinal, Interval and Ratio

Measurement scales are classified popularly under four categories Nominal Ordinal Interval Ratio Let’s discuss in brief about these measurement scales before going on for some technical details. If you want to test Network of 50 smartphone users. We can begin by evaluating each on 4G – Non-4G data; this is a

# Measures of Location–Mean and Median

Measures of location are used in order to determine where the data distribution is concentrated. The most usual measures of location are Mean and Median Mean The mean of a set of numerical observations is just the familiar arithmetic average. The sum of the observations divided by the number of

# Common symbols used in statistical tests

Each statistical tests or methods has its own terminology and symbols, but the following are commonly used by all statisticians / researchers N – Size of population n - number of observations (sample size) K - number of samples (each having n elements) α (Alpha) - level of significance