The Nobel Prize is a set of annual international awards granted in several categories by Swedish and Norwegian institutions in recognition of academic, cultural, or scientific advances. The will of the Swedish scientist Alfred Nobel established the five Nobel prizes in 1895. The prizes in Chemistry, Literature, Peace, Physics, and Physiology or Medicine were first awarded in 1901. Today, the prize is awarded for Outstanding contributions to humanity in Chemistry, Literature, Peace, Physics, and Physiology or Medicine and Economics.
The Nobel Prize in Physics 1901
Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen -“in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by the discovery of the remarkable rays subsequently named after him”
The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1901
Jacobus Henricus van ‘t Hoff – “in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by the discovery of the laws of chemical dynamics and osmotic pressure in solutions”
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1901
Emil Adolf von Behring – “for his work on serum therapy, especially its application against diphtheria, by which he has opened a new road in the domain of medical science and thereby placed in the hands of the physician a victorious weapon against illness and deaths”
The Nobel Prize in Literature 1901
Sully Prudhomme – “in special recognition of his poetic composition, which gives evidence of lofty idealism, artistic perfection and a rare combination of the qualities of both heart and intellect”
The Nobel Peace Prize 1901
Jean Henry Dunant
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Source: All Nobel Prizes. NobelPrize.org.