The Nobel Prize is a set of annual international awards granted in several categories by Swedish and Norwegian institutions in recognition of academic, cultural, or scientific advances. The will of the Swedish scientist Alfred Nobel established the five Nobel prizes in 1895. The prizes in Chemistry, Literature, Peace, Physics, and Physiology or Medicine were first awarded in 1901. Today, the prize is awarded for Outstanding contributions to humanity in Chemistry, Literature, Peace, Physics, and Physiology or Medicine and Economics.
The Nobel Prize for Physics in 1944
Isidor Isaac Rabi – for his resonance method for recording the magnetic properties of atomic nuclei
The Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1944
Otto Hahn – for his discovery of the fission of heavy nuclei
The Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1944
Joseph Erlanger and Herbert Spencer Gasser – for their discoveries relating to the highly differentiated functions of single nerve fibres
The Nobel Prize for Literature in 1944
Johannes Vilhelm Jensen – for the rare strength and fertility of his poetic imagination with which is combined an intellectual curiosity of wide scope and a bold, freshly creative style
The Nobel Peace Prize in 1944
Comité international de la Croix Rouge (International Committee of the Red Cross)
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Source: All Nobel Prizes. NobelPrize.org.