The Nobel Prize is a set of annual international awards granted in several categories by Swedish and Norwegian institutions in recognition of academic, cultural, or scientific advances. The will of the Swedish scientist Alfred Nobel established the five Nobel prizes in 1895. The prizes in Chemistry, Literature, Peace, Physics, and Physiology or Medicine were first awarded in 1901. Today, the prize is awarded for Outstanding contributions to humanity in Chemistry, Literature, Peace, Physics, and Physiology or Medicine and Economics.
The Nobel Prize for Physics in 1977
Philip Warren Anderson, Sir Nevill Francis Mott and John Hasbrouck van Vleck – for their fundamental theoretical investigations of the electronic structure of magnetic and disordered systems
The Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1977
Ilya Prigogine – for his contributions to non-equilibrium thermodynamics, particularly the theory of dissipative structures
The Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1977
Roger Guillemin and Andrew V. Schally – for their discoveries concerning the peptide hormone production of the brain
Rosalyn Yalow – for the development of radioimmunoassays of peptide hormones
The Nobel Prize for Literature in 1977
Vicente Aleixandre – for a creative poetic writing which illuminates man’s condition in the cosmos and in present-day society, at the same time representing the great renewal of the traditions of Spanish poetry between the wars
The Nobel Peace Prize in 1977
The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1977
Bertil Ohlin and James E. Meade – for their pathbreaking contribution to the theory of international trade and international capital movements
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Source: All Nobel Prizes. NobelPrize.org.