The Nobel Prize is a set of annual international awards granted in several categories by Swedish and Norwegian institutions in recognition of academic, cultural, or scientific advances. The will of the Swedish scientist Alfred Nobel established the five Nobel prizes in 1895. The prizes in Chemistry, Literature, Peace, Physics, and Physiology or Medicine were first awarded in 1901. Today, the prize is awarded for Outstanding contributions to humanity in Chemistry, Literature, Peace, Physics, and Physiology or Medicine and Economics.
The Nobel Prize for Physics in 1990
Jerome I. Friedman, Henry W. Kendall and Richard E. Taylor – for their pioneering investigations concerning deep inelastic scattering of electrons on protons and bound neutrons, which have been of essential importance for the development of the quark model in particle physics
The Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1990
Elias James Corey – for his development of the theory and methodology of organic synthesis
The Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1990
Joseph E. Murray and E. Donnall Thomas – for their discoveries concerning organ and cell transplantation in the treatment of human disease
The Nobel Prize for Literature in 1990
Octavio Paz – for impassioned writing with wide horizons, characterized by sensuous intelligence and humanistic integrity
The Nobel Peace Prize in 1990
Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev – for his leading role in the peace process which today characterizes important parts of the international community
The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1990
Harry M. Markowitz, Merton H. Miller and William F. Sharpe – for their pioneering work in the theory of financial economics
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Source: All Nobel Prizes. NobelPrize.org.