The Nobel Prize is a set of annual international awards granted in several categories by Swedish and Norwegian institutions in recognition of academic, cultural, or scientific advances. The will of the Swedish scientist Alfred Nobel established the five Nobel prizes in 1895. The prizes in Chemistry, Literature, Peace, Physics, and Physiology or Medicine were first awarded in 1901. Today, the prize is awarded for Outstanding contributions to humanity in Chemistry, Literature, Peace, Physics, and Physiology or Medicine and Economics.
The Nobel Prize for Physics in 2012
Serge Haroche and David J. Wineland – for ground-breaking experimental methods that enable measuring and manipulation of individual quantum systems
The Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 2012
Robert J. Lefkowitz and Brian K. Kobilka – for studies of G-protein-coupled receptors
The Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 2012
Sir John B. Gurdon and Shinya Yamanaka – for the discovery that mature cells can be reprogrammed to become pluripotent
The Nobel Prize for Literature in 2012
Mo Yan – who with hallucinatory realism merges folk tales, history and the contemporary
The Nobel Peace Prize in 2012
European Union (EU) – for over six decades contributed to the advancement of peace and reconciliation, democracy and human rights in Europe
The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2012
Alvin E. Roth and Lloyd S. Shapley – for the theory of stable allocations and the practice of market design
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Source: All Nobel Prizes. NobelPrize.org.