The Nobel Prize is a set of annual international awards granted in several categories by Swedish and Norwegian institutions in recognition of academic, cultural, or scientific advances. The will of the Swedish scientist Alfred Nobel established the five Nobel prizes in 1895. The prizes in Chemistry, Literature, Peace, Physics, and Physiology or Medicine were first awarded in 1901. Today, the prize is awarded for Outstanding contributions to humanity in Chemistry, Literature, Peace, Physics, and Physiology or Medicine and Economics.
The Nobel Prize for Physics in 2013
François Englert and Peter W. Higgs – for the theoretical discovery of a mechanism that contributes to our understanding of the origin of mass of subatomic particles, and which recently was confirmed through the discovery of the predicted fundamental particle, by the ATLAS and CMS experiments at CERN’s Large Hadron Collider
The Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 2013
Martin Karplus, Michael Levitt and Arieh Warshel – for the development of multiscale models for complex chemical systems
The Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 2013
James E. Rothman, Randy W. Schekman and Thomas C. Südhof – for their discoveries of machinery regulating vesicle traffic, a major transport system in our cells
The Nobel Prize for Literature in 2013
Alice Munro – master of the contemporary short story
The Nobel Peace Prize in 2013
Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) – for its extensive efforts to eliminate chemical weapons
The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2013
Eugene F. Fama, Lars Peter Hansen and Robert J. Shiller – for their empirical analysis of asset prices
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Source: All Nobel Prizes. NobelPrize.org.