The Nobel Prize is a set of annual international awards granted in several categories by Swedish and Norwegian institutions in recognition of academic, cultural, or scientific advances. The will of the Swedish scientist Alfred Nobel established the five Nobel prizes in 1895. The prizes in Chemistry, Literature, Peace, Physics, and Physiology or Medicine were first awarded in 1901. Today, the prize is awarded for Outstanding contributions to humanity in Chemistry, Literature, Peace, Physics, and Physiology or Medicine and Economics.
The Nobel Prize for Physics in 2014
Isamu Akasaki, Hiroshi Amano and Shuji Nakamura – for the invention of efficient blue light-emitting diodes which has enabled bright and energy-saving white light sources
The Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 2014
Eric Betzig, Stefan W. Hell and William E. Moerner – for the development of super-resolved fluorescence microscopy
The Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 2014
John O’Keefe, May-Britt Moser and Edvard I. Moser – for their discoveries of cells that constitute a positioning system in the brain
The Nobel Prize for Literature in 2014
Patrick Modiano – for the art of memory with which he has evoked the most ungraspable human destinies and uncovered the life-world of the occupation
The Nobel Peace Prize in 2014
Kailash Satyarthi and Malala Yousafzai – for their struggle against the suppression of children and young people and for the right of all children to education
The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2014
Jean Tirole – for his analysis of market power and regulation
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Source: All Nobel Prizes. NobelPrize.org.