The Nobel Prize is a set of annual international awards granted in several categories by Swedish and Norwegian institutions in recognition of academic, cultural, or scientific advances. The will of the Swedish scientist Alfred Nobel established the five Nobel prizes in 1895. The prizes in Chemistry, Literature, Peace, Physics, and Physiology or Medicine were first awarded in 1901. Today, the prize is awarded for Outstanding contributions to humanity in Chemistry, Literature, Peace, Physics, and Physiology or Medicine and Economics.
The Nobel Prize for Physics in 2016
David J. Thouless, F. Duncan M. Haldane and J. Michael Kosterlitz – for theoretical discoveries of topological phase transitions and topological phases of matter
The Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 2016
Jean-Pierre Sauvage, Sir J. Fraser Stoddart and Bernard L. Feringa – for the design and synthesis of molecular machines
The Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 2016
Yoshinori Ohsumi – for his discoveries of mechanisms for autophagy
The Nobel Prize for Literature in 2016
Bob Dylan – for having created new poetic expressions within the great American song tradition
The Nobel Peace Prize in 2016
Juan Manuel Santos – for his resolute efforts to bring the country’s more than 50-year-long civil war to an end
The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2016
Oliver Hart and Bengt Holmström – for their contributions to contract theory
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Source: All Nobel Prizes. NobelPrize.org.