The Nobel Prize is a set of annual international awards granted in several categories by Swedish and Norwegian institutions in recognition of academic, cultural, or scientific advances. The will of the Swedish scientist Alfred Nobel established the five Nobel prizes in 1895. The prizes in Chemistry, Literature, Peace, Physics, and Physiology or Medicine were first awarded in 1901. Today, the prize is awarded for Outstanding contributions to humanity in Chemistry, Literature, Peace, Physics, and Physiology or Medicine and Economics.
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2018
James P. Allison and Tasuku Honjo – for their discovery of cancer therapy by inhibition of negative immune regulation.
The Nobel Prize in Physics 2018
Arthur Ashkin – for the optical tweezers and their application to biological systems.
Gérard Mourou and Donna Strickland – for their method of generating high-intensity, ultra-short optical pulses
The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2018
Frances H. Arnold – for the directed evolution of enzymes
George P. Smith and Sir Gregory P. Winter – for the phage display of peptides and antibodies
The Nobel Prize in Literature 2018
The 2018 Nobel Prize in Literature has been postponed.
The Nobel Peace Prize 2018
Denis Mukwege and Nadia Murad – for their efforts to end the use of sexual violence as a weapon of war and armed conflict
The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2018
William D. Nordhaus – for integrating climate change into long-run macroeconomic analysis.
Paul M. Romer – for integrating technological innovations into long-run macroeconomic analysis
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Source: All Nobel Prizes. NobelPrize.org.